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Trade Profile

In this page: Foreign Trade in Figures | Trade Compliance | Standards

 

Foreign Trade in Figures

Ukraine is a very open economy, with the share of foreign trade in the country’s GDP at 101.6% (WTO, 2012-2014 average). The recession in 2009 led to a drop in exports and a reduction in domestic demand, leading to a considerable adjustment of the trade balance. In 2013, the trade deficit decreased significantly, because of imports declining faster than exports. In 2014, the deficit shrunk even further to almost an equal balance (USD 468 mn), as a result of the sharp drop in imports.

Overall, foreign trade has been hit hard by the conflict with Russia. Imports have declined dramatically, because of Russian trade sanctions and the financial reserve deficit. Exports have also declined, because the country's production capacity has been damaged by the conflict.

Ukraine's main suppliers are Russia, China, Germany, Belarus and Poland, amounting to 44% of imports. Russia is a major supplier of oil and gas, accounting for almost a quarter of the country's total imports. However, trade relations with Russia greatly deteriorated in 2014, as Russia used the gas exports as a lever to influence Kiev's position in the current conflict in the eastern part of the country. Ukraine mainly imports fuels and oil, machinery, vehicles, electrical and electronic equipment and plastics.

Its main customers are Russia, Turkey, Egypt, China and Poland, amounting to 60% of exports. Main export goods are iron and steel, fuels and oil, nuclear reactors and boilers, machinery and machine tools (around 30% of exports), as well as cereals.

 
Foreign Trade Indicators 20122013201420152016
Imports of Goods (million USD) 84,63976,78754,33036,31739,151
Exports of Goods (million USD) 68,53064,33854,19937,85936,364
Imports of Services (million USD) 13,99415,53811,7029,78711,185
Exports of Services (million USD) 21,37321,85114,58212,12912,394
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 3.8-3.5-22.1-17.98.4
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) -5.6-8.1-14.2-13.2-1.6
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 56.452.252.154.555.5
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 35.443.048.652.649.3
Trade Balance (million USD) -21,846-22,128-7,128-3,455n/a
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 91.895.1100.7107.1104.8

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) - 2017; World Bank - 2017

 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2015
Russia 12.7%
Turkey 7.3%
China 6.3%
Egypt 5.5%
Italy 5.2%
Poland 5.2%
India 3.8%
Germany 3.5%
Spain 2.7%
Hungary 2.4%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2015
Russia 20.0%
Germany 10.6%
China 10.1%
Belarus 6.5%
Poland 6.2%
Hungary 4.3%
United States 4.0%
Italy 2.6%
France 2.4%
Turkey 2.3%

Source: Comtrade, 2017

 

Main Products

38.1 bn USD of products exported in 2015
Sunflower-seed, safflower or cotton-seed oil and fractions thereof, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified 7.9%
Maize or corn 7.9%
Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel 6.5%
Wheat and meslin 5.9%
Iron ores and concentrates, incl. roasted iron pyrites 5.5%
Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width >= 600 mm, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated 3.9%
Insulated incl. enamelled or anodised wire, cable incl. coaxial cable and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 2.7%
Ferro-alloys 2.3%
Bars and rods, of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but incl. those twisted after rolling (excl. in irregularly wound coils) 2.2%
Soya beans, whether or not broken 2.1%
37.5 bn USD of products imported in 2015
Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons 12.6%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 10.2%
Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal 4.3%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses incl. those in the form of transdermal administration or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.9%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 2.2%
Insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants and similar products, put up for retail sale or as preparations or articles, e.g. sulphur-treated bands, wicks and candles, and fly-papers 1.7%
Nuclear reactors; fuel elements cartridges, non-irradiated, for nuclear reactors; machinery and apparatus for isotopic separation; parts thereof 1.7%
Mineral or chemical fertilizers containing two or three of the fertilizing elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; other fertilizers (excl. pure animal or vegetable fertilizers or mineral or chemical nitrogenous, phosphatic or potassic fertilizers); animal, vegetable, mineral or chemical fertilizers in tablets or similar forms or in packages of a gross weight of <= 10 kg 1.2%
Insulated incl. enamelled or anodised wire, cable incl. coaxial cable and other insulated electric conductors, whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fibre cables, made-up of individually sheathed fibres, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors 1.1%
Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon 1.0%

Source: Comtrade, 2017

 
 
 

Main Services

8.5 bn USD of services exported in 2015
Transportation
61.89%
Computer and information services
14.56%
Other business services
9.65%
Communications services
4.44%
Construction services
3.44%
Travel
2.37%
Financial services
2.25%
Royalties and license fees
0.60%
Insurance services
0.54%
Cultural and recreational services
0.19%
Government services
0.05%
5.4 bn USD of services imported in 2015
Transportation
21.36%
Government services
19.66%
Financial services
16.28%
Other business services
13.38%
Travel
11.12%
Royalties and license fees
5.61%
Communications services
5.26%
Computer and information services
5.05%
Insurance services
1.38%
Construction services
0.75%
Cultural and recreational services
0.15%

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, Latest Available Data

 

Exchange Rate System

Local Currency
Ukrainian Hryvnia (UAH)
Exchange Rate Regime
The first anti-crisis measures have been, above all, focused on exchange control: suspension of pre-payments; obligation to use letters of credit for payments to non-residents; compulsory conversion of 50% of export receipts; suspension of foreign currencies interbank transactions; suspension of open positions for banks.
Level of Currency Instability
There is no specific regulation on currency exchange.
 
 
Monetary Indicators 20122013201420152016
Ukrainian Hryvnia (UAH) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD 7.997.9911.8921.8425.55

Source: World Bank - Latest available data.

 
 

Trade Compliance

International Conventions
Member of World Trade Organisation
Party to the Kyoto Protocol
Party to the Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Party to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
Party to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls For Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
Main International Economic Cooperation
Ukraine is member of WTO since 2008.
Party of the ATA Convention on Temporary Admissions and Use of the Carnets
Yes

As a Reminder, the ATA is a System Allowing the Free Movement of Goods Across Frontiers and Their Temporary Admission Into a Customs Territory With Relief From Duties and Taxes. The Goods Are Covered By a Single Document Known as the ATA Carnet That is Secured By an International Guarantee System.
Look Up the Other Member Countries And Read the Web Pages of the World Customs Organization Devoted to the ATA Carnet.
Party of the TIR Convention
Yes

As a Reminder, the TIR Convention and its Transit Regime Contribute to the Facilitation of International Transport, Especially International Road Transport, Not Only in Europe and the Middle East, But Also in Other Parts of the World, Such as Africa and Latin America.
The UNCTAD Website Allows You to Read the TIR Convention, See the List of Member Countries And to Find Further Information.
Accompanying Documents For Imports
Goods exported to the Ukraine have to be accompanied by the following documents:
- The Single Administrative Document (SAD);
- The sale invoice, in triplicate;
- A phytosanitary certificate.  It is required for fruits, vegetables, seeds and other vegetable matter and it is issued by the regional plant protection service;
- A health certificate.  It is required for meats and is issued by the country authority for vetenary services;
- A certificate of origin.  It should be drawn up on the community form;
- A free sales certificate for cosmetics, issued by the Federation of perfume industries;
- Transport documents and the packing list.
Free Zones
Ukraine has a large number of free trade zones. For more information, consult the website Investments in Ukraine.
For Further Information
KMU Official Ukrainian Customs website
Ministry of Economy of Ukraine
Ministry of Finance of Ukraine
Non Tariff Barriers
Non-tariff barriers include non-transparent standards, costly certification and cumbersome procedures for phytosanitary certification, and import licenses. The other important barrier to trade and investment in Ukraine is the country's difficulty in transiting from a planned economy to a market economy. Following economic reforms, the country experienced a relative success concerning export and investment. In the beginning of January 2011, the Government of Ukraine signed Order #971, approving a list of food products that require monitoring for genetically engineered or genetically modified organism (GMO) content.

Learn more about How to Export to Ukraine on Globaltrade.net, the Directory for International Trade Service Providers.

 

Standards

National Standards Organisations
National Standards Agency
Integration in the International Standards Network
In 1996, the ISO 9000 standards were adopted as the national standards.
The Ukrainian government's decree of 1994 imposed a compulsory certification for all products imported into Ukraine. This decree lays down the list of goods subject to certification and adjusts the certification procedures. The certificates can be produced in two ways: on the one hand, there is an acceptance certificate allowing foreign certification, while, on the other hand there is a certificate of conformity published by a certified Ukrainian agency. This decree says that certificates produced by foreign and competent authorities must be issued by a foreign country which adheres to the same Treaties as Ukraine.
The competent Ukrainian mechanism for certification called the Ukrainian State Committee on Standards, Certification and Metrology - Ukr Standard, in Ukraine, has a network of 93 certification subsidiaries and laboratories over the entire country.
Ukraine has passed several new laws and governmental decrees in recent years aimed at improving Ukrainian standard . However, significant problems remain.
Classification of Standards
Classification of Ukrainian standards
Assessment of the System of Standardization
Ukraine is a member of ISO
Certification Organisations
UKRSEPRO System
Certification for Ukraine
National Center for standardization, certification and problems of quality (in Ukrainian)
The State Committee of Ukraine for Technical Regulation and Consumer Policy.

 

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Last Updates: June 2017