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Capital: Ankara


Total Population: 79,512,426
Natural Increase: 1.6%
Density: 103 Inhabitants/km²
Urban Population: 73.9%
Population of main cities: Istanbul (14,025,646); Ankara (4,587,558); Izmir (2,847,691); Bursa (1,800,278); Adana (1,663,485); Gaziantep (1,510,270); Konya (1,174,536); Antalya (1,068,099)
Ethnic Origins: There are more than 70 ethnic groups in Turkey. About 75% of the population is of Turkish origin, 18% is of Kurdish origin, 4% is of Circassian origin and 3% is of other ethic background (including of Armenian, Greek, Georgian, Arab, European from the Balkans and Russian origins). (Turkish Statistical Institute)
Official Language: Turkish
Other Languages Spoken: There are several other Altaic languages spoken. Languages spoken by minorities include Kurdish, Greek, Armenian, Bulgarian, Albanian and Circassian. English, French and German are used fairly frequently in business and trade.
Business Language(s): English is very commonly used in business.
Religion: Muslim 96%. Other (Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant): 4%.
Literacy Rate: 96.2%
National Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY)
Exchange rate (average of the last 30 days):
1 TRY = 0.1850 EUR

Country Overview

Area: 785,350 km²
Type of State: Turkey is a parliamentary democratic republic.
Type of Economy: Upper-middle-income economy; OECD member; Emerging Financial Market.
Turkey's GDP is based on services: 65%, industry: 27% and agriculture: 8%. In 2015, the food & beverages sector contributed the largest share of the national income (20%). Construction was the second sector in 2015 (17% of the national income) and has been in expansion in recent years, due primarily to the launching of large infrastructure projects.
HDI*: 0.761/1
HDI (World Rank): 72/188

Note: (*) The HDI, Human Development Index, is an Indicator Which Synthesizes Several Data Such as Life Expectancy, Level of Education, Professional Careers, Access to Culture etc.


Telephone Code:
To call from Turkey, dial 00
To call Turkey, dial +90
Internet Suffix: .tr
Computers: 5.1 per 100 Inhabitants
Telephone Lines: 18.6 per 100 Inhabitants
Internet Users: 45.1 per 100 Inhabitants
Access to Electricity: 100% of the Population

Foreign Trade in Figures

Foreign Trade Indicators 20122013201420152016
Imports of Goods (million USD) 236,545251,661242,177207,199198,610
Exports of Goods (million USD) 152,462151,803157,610143,883142,557
Imports of Services (million USD) 19,42223,01823,05420,81922,215
Exports of Services (million USD) 42,81547,40051,03045,91037,634

Source: WTO – World Trade Organisation, 2017


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Last Updates: June 2018